BerkeleyGW is a many-body perturbation theory code for excited states, using the GW method and the GW plus Bethe-Salpeter equation (GW-BSE) method to solve respectively for quasiparticle excitations and optical properties of materials. BerkeleyGW is:

  • Suitable for 3D, 2D, 1D, and molecular systems;
  • Applicable to insulating, metallic, and semi-metallic systems;
  • Massively parallelized with MPI, OpenMP, SIMD;
  • Recently ported to GPUs, reaching 86x speedup compared to the CPU implementation.

The latest BerkeleyGW can be applied to study systems up to a few thousand atoms. A recent calculation of GW quasiparticle excitation energies of divacancies in Si and SiC adopts a supercell contains > 2700 atoms (> 10,000 electrons), reaching 105.9 double-precision PetaFLOP/s, 52.7% of the peak performance, running at full-scale of Summit at OLCF with 27,648 GPUs. The GPU version of BerkeleyGW will be released soon!


The BerkeleyGW package takes mean-field solutions (for example, DFT wavefunctions and eigenvalues) as input for the many-body perturbation theory calculations. BerkeleyGW currently is interfaced with the following DFT codes with efficient built-in wrappers:

The package consists of the three main component codes:

  • Epsilon computes the irreducible polarizability in the Random Phase Approximation and uses it to generate the dielectric matrix and its inverse.
  • Sigma computes the self-energy corrections to the DFT eigenenergies using the GW approximation of Hedin and Lundqvist, applying the first-principles methodology of Hybertsen and Louie within the generalized plasmon-pole model for the frequency-dependent dielectric matrix.
  • BSE solves the Bethe-Salpeter equation for correlated electron-hole excitations.

As a condition for using BerkeleyGW, you are asked to cite the following papers and acknowledge the use of the BerkeleyGW package in your publications.

  • [1] Mark S. Hybertsen and Steven G. Louie, “Electron correlation in semiconductors and insulators: Band gaps and quasiparticle energies,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 5390 (1986)
  • [2] Michael Rohlfing and Steven G. Louie, “Electron-hole excitations and optical spectra from first principles,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4927 (2000)

Papers [1] and [3] should be cited when discussing quasiparticle properties such as GW band structures, and papers [2] and [3] should be cited when discussing optical properties with excitonic effects.

BerkeleyGW is currently supported by the Center for Computational Study of Excited-State Phenomena in Energy Materials (C2SEPEM) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. C2SEPEM currently support another two excited-state codes: StochasticGW which utilizes the stochastic sampling technique and reaches linear scaling in system size, and NanoGW which is based on the solution of the Casida equation employing a real-space grid.